What is the pathophysiology involved with the prodrome associated with migraines?

Discussion Prompt

Case Study: A 20-year-old female presents with severe migraines.  She has been treated for the last two years.

Answer the questions:

1. What is the pathophysiology involved with the prodrome associated with migraines?

2. Compare and contrast tension headache and cluster headache.  Use patho principles.

3. What is the pathophysiologic difference between migraine headache and tension headache?





Initial Post:

APA format with intext citations

Word count minimum of 250, not including references.

References: 2 high-level scholarly references within the last 5 years in APA format.

Plagiarism free.


Answer & Explanation
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Question 1

Migraine, a primary brain disorder, involves an ion channel in the aminergic brain stem. Pathophysiological neural events consequences in the expansion of blood vessels infuriating pain in the body.  As reported by Cuvellier (2019), the prodrome phase (premonitory phase) symbolizes a migraine’s foundation. Additionally, symptoms in the brainstem like muscle tenderness are common neurological changes connected with a prodromal stage of migraine headache.

Step-by-step explanation


Question 2

Pathophysiological principles (path principles) can help compare and contrast tension headaches and cluster headaches.  Chen et al. ( 2018) urged that tension headaches are commonly categorized by moderate chronic headache pain, accompanied by discomfort and pain in both sides of the head. On the other hand, cluster headache produces pain in one side of the head.  The similarity of the tension headache and cluster headache is that both causes migraine with bulging autonomic features. Additionally, both categories of headaches experience hemicrania continua.

Tension headaches are commonly related to fatigue, hangovers, and stress. Besides, most people experience tension headaches compared to cluster headaches. On the contrary, cluster headaches appear mostly during seasonal changes. They can cause exceeded pain-causing suicide; hence they are also known as suicide headaches.

Question 3

The pathophysiologic difference between migraine headache and tension headache includes migraine pain is accompanied by throbbing pain. Ashina et al. (2020) explained that most individuals explain that slight physical exertion can cause a migraine headache. On the other hand, tension headache has a muscular origin. Moreover, tension headache is frequently associated with ongoing and chronic pain.


Ashina, H., Iljazi, A., Al‐Khazali, H. M., Christensen, C. E., Amin, F. M., Ashina, M., & Schytz, H. W. (2020). Hypersensitivity to Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide in Post‐Traumatic Headache. Annals of Neurology88(6), 1220-1228.

Cuvellier, J. C. (2019). Pediatric vs. adult prodrome and postdrome: a window on migraine pathophysiology. Frontiers in neurology10, 199.

Chen, W. T., Chou, K. H., Lee, P. L., Hsiao, F. J., Niddam, D. M., Lai, K. L., … & Wang, S. J. (2018). Comparison of gray matter volume between migraine and “strict-criteria” tension-type headache. The journal of headache and pain19(1), 1-11.