Comment on one or all questions:
1. To some extent, North and Northeast African states made some reforms in the nineteenth century partly to meet the European challenges. What were the effects of the domestic reforms?
2. Was Muhammad Ali (r. 1805-1849) in his modernization of Egypt? Did the reforms he introduced strengthen or weaken the Egyptian defense against European powers? How?
3. What did modernization mean to the people (farmers and merchants) in Egypt and other nations in the Northeast Africa? How did the European presence divide or unite the Muslim society? Is the current situation in the region similar to or different from the nineteenth century? Why?